In the nineteenth century, smallpox ravaged through the United States and Canada. At this time, a botanical preparation, derived from the carnivorous plant Sarracenia purpurea, was proclaimed as being a successful therapy for smallpox infections. The work described characterizes the antipoxvirus activity associated with this botanical extract against vaccinia virus, monkeypox virus and variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. Our work demonstrates the in vitro characterization of Sarracenia purpurea as the first effective inhibitor of poxvirus replication at the level of early viral transcription. With the renewed threat of poxvirus-related infections, our results indicate Sarracenia purpurea may act as another defensive measure against Orthopoxvirus infections.
Post by pittsburghpredators on Jul 16, 2020 18:17:56 GMT -5
Based on potential viral symptoms on a few of my plants, I sent in a large number of samples to Penn State's Plant Pathology Clinic to be tested for plant viruses. The results for some plants returned POSITIVE for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The samples were tested for multiple types of viruses, but only returned a positive for CMV. The CMV testing was done using Agdia ImmunoStrip Cucumber Mosaic Virus and it looks like this is available to the general public. The website has a "sign in to view price restriction" which I will respect, but I will say that the tests are not as expensive as I had anticipated. Less than $150 total for the 25 test kits. Available here.
So now, here are some images of the plants with symptoms so that others can use this information going forward. If any images are deleted due to website changes/image hosting issues, please let me know and I'd be happy to share them again. What is MOST interesting is that I have had a suspicious flava var. cuprea for a while, and when I sent that in, only the symptomatic growth point tested positive. A few GPs had symptoms, a few did not, but only the symptomatic GP was positive. I wonder if the virus may not spread as easily throughout the rhizome, or what the cause for this was, but it is encouraging that the virus appears to be symptomatic in Sarracenia - there is a possibility it may exist asymptomatically but that was not the case in the samples I had tested.
I apologize for the quality of some pictures, but I was trying best to capture the potential symptoms rather than have a "perfect quality" picture - and I didn't want to spread any virus through touch (since I was uprooting plants and breaking apart rhizomes) so I was trying to stay pretty hands off of the plants.
This individual purpurea hybrid was the most suspicious to me, notice the green spotting on the leaves. This plant died a few days after I divided it to send a growth point to Penn State and has since been destroyed.
That shared a water tray with this flava var. rubricorpora: interestingly enough, this plant tested negative - I will test again when I receive my immunostrips, but I just find it very odd. Even if it does test negative again I'll probably get rid of the plant since it appears there's something going on.
S. alabamensis: notice the crazy mottling that appears. This plant also tested positive for CMV.
However, flava x willisii tested negative, despite having the same symptoms of alabamensis.
S flava var. cuprea, symptomatic, tested positive while asymptomatic GP on same rhizome tested negative:
S unknown hybrid (maybe flava x minor?) tested positive
Unknown hybrid, potentially catesbaei? tested positive. This did not have as typical symptoms, but had streaking and spotting. I have a few more plants with way less streaking that I'd like to test myself.
S Okee Dokie tested negative - they had been displaying this weird lighter lesion for a few years but it appears it may be a pest problem instead. Also, the dark green patch (circled in second picture) was not viral. I may do a second test just to be 100% safe.
Minor hybrid tested negative. The patching eventually disappeared as well, it may just have been light exposure on the new leaf.
And finally, oreophila... however, the samples had dried too much that results were not viable by the time the shipment was received. It's a pretty big clump, so I will test it myself. I expect to find results positive but we will see if it's that or just a nutrient deficiency of some sorts. I will update with those results.
I received a few of these plants within the past year and will be contacting who I received them from, but I do not believe they were the source of the virus. Interestingly enough, it looks like aphids are the spreader of CMV (along with finger pruning) and there seems to be no documented spread by mealies - I could be wrong of course, but aphids appear as if are the biggest offenders. It looks like cucumber beetles also spread it, but if they don’t eat Sarracenia I think that is nothing to worry about - unless Sarracenia might get virus by digesting a carrier beetle? I’m not sure. I’m also not sure if CMV is the only virus that infects Sarracenia, but the good news is that CMV is not as stable as some other viruses which, in my understanding, means it can be harder to spread. In aphids it appears that CMV can only last a few hours before the virus dies and would need to be reconsumed. Pollen may spread CMV and it appears CMV can be passed to offspring from a positive parent.
I cannot find any information on whether this virus spreads through water and or soil, so while it is best to take safe precautions, I think that is likely a secondary worry rather than an immediate source of spread (for this virus). The best thing you can do for your plants is always sterilize pruning tools and make sure to spray off aphids in the spring! You can’t eradicate plant virus but you can certainly eradicate the biggest vector! Also, this doesn’t guarantee that CMV is the only virus that affects Sarracenia. In my case, it was the only virus found on my symptomatic plants out of CMV, Tobacco Mosaic, Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus, Spotted Wilt Virus, and a group of Polyviruses. Anyone's potential virus could be different, but I believe it is important to know to that CMV definitely can infect Sarracenia.
It’s highly likely I had the virus back in 2015 in my earlier pictures, and I should’ve destroyed the plants then - oh well, you live and learn. I haven’t been finding too many symptomatic plants (in my collection of at least 400 clones and many more individual divisions of some clones), so luckily it does seem like this virus isn’t the end of the world for any collector as long as you’re on top of your game (and as long as any aphids go for your replaceable plants!). Now that I’ll be cleaning up my collection, I’m hoping to share some pics of my nice and healthy plants, without always posting in this thread about the few that are unfortunately infected. Take care and keep yourselves and your plants safe from viruses!
I purchased this plant last June and this is the first I've seen of any potential virus in it. I will be reaching out to the person I bought this from (as a heads up and to check on plants that were nearby) if the appearance does not improve at all.
That being said, I recently moved this to a slightly sunnier (only by a margin) spot - that likely doesn't make a difference but figured I'd include that in my response as well.
Interesting. I wonder if it's possibly from your potential infection in May's post?
What I really don't like about these viral issues is we can eliminate the human error fairly easily but the fact that the sucker pests can transmit it makes it a little more frightening. For quarantine areas - what kind of distances from your main collection does everyone think is appropriate?
Based on the test results I just shared, it appears aphids are the main offender. I'm not sure if I would even be able to quantify a distance for a quarantine zone, other than as far as possible. I reverse-quarantined my favorites until I got results (and until I get rid of all suspects) and they were about 20 feet away and so far seem okay... unfortunately I couldn't give them more distance.
Yes insects are scary for spreading diseases. I did find some scales on my plant, and not all the new pitchers show this. If it was a virus, would it not affect all new growth? This is on my hurricane creek white, so I would rather be sure before doing something drastic, since it's a sarracenia I really like and I have only one of it. I removed it from my greenhouse just to be sure.
Most likely it would not affect all new growth unfortunately. I just checked the symptomatic plant of cuprea and while most of the pitchers appear a little off, not every single leaf does. However, on the cuprea, the virus made a lot of the new pitchers very small compared to the asymptomatic plant. Most other positive plants also appeared to be somewhat lagging or unhealthy.
Post by daniella3d on Jul 16, 2020 18:36:19 GMT -5
Is it possible that the virus does not infect the whole rhizome? or only the pitchers when insects introduce it inside?, because that grow point that tested negative on a positive plant is have me think that it's not the whole rhizome that is infected. Is it possible that if you cut off all the pitchers that are infected, or cut off that grow point, that new pitchers would not be infected? It is very interesting that not all grow point on the same infected plant is not infected. Or is it possible that this grow point would test positive later on and it is not infected enough to trigger the test?
This should be investigated because if it is possible to save a sarracenia from a virus by cutting the grow point that is infected, it would be very good.
No they are not, and I think I just got unlucky with placing certain plants near others. It was the first spring I had ever seen aphids on my plants so I'm sure that's probably how it spread. I do think I can pinpoint it to a single one of my early 2010s acquisitions.
Edit: and the source of the suspected early plant no longer sells plants and has never sold on any forum to my knowledge.
Post by daniella3d on Jul 16, 2020 18:40:04 GMT -5
My hurricane creek white is looking better now. I cannot really see the markings, so maybe it was just an environmental factor. It does not lack in vigor either. The markings on my plant were not as obvious as in yours.
Thanks for posting this, p.b.p.! Good to find test kits for several diseases.
There is more than one virus which attack Sarracenia. There's the Sarracenia purpurea virus. No doubt, many viruses can cross species. Cucumber Beetles eat a variety of plants, but I've not seen them feed on Sarracenia. Vectors such as thrips could also come into play, along with aphids.
Since CMV has an extremely wide host range, it could come in from almost anywhere. When pruning, cutting, a half gallon pump sprayer, filled with a quaternary ammonium salt solution should be used to wash and sanitize tools. The CMV virus loses infectivity over a fairly short time in open air. So, having multiple pruners and rotating through them after sanitizing is also a good step.
sanguinearocks101: What are good plants to make hybrids with S. luecophylla with? Im looking for dark colors.
Sept 10, 2020 18:46:52 GMT -5
adaetz100: Sarracenia purpurea tends to add a lot of red/purple to its offspring, but there are some lovely dark red flava x leucophylla crosses too. Look up 'Royal Ruby' if you're not familiar with it already--it's a natural flava x leuco hybrid
Sept 22, 2020 20:15:04 GMT -5
sarrseens: How about $50
Oct 3, 2020 10:35:54 GMT -5